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Proto-Polynesian *kumala (compare Easter Island kumara, Hawaiian ʻuala, Māori kumāra; apparent cognates outside Eastern Polynesian may be borrowed from Eastern Polynesian languages, calling Proto-Polynesian status and age into question) may be connected with Quechua and Aymara k’umar ~ k’umara.
A possible second is the word for 'stone axe', Easter Island toki, New Zealand Maori toki 'adze', Mapuche toki, and further afield, Yurumanguí totoki 'axe'.
A Norse colony in Greenland was established in the late 10th century, and lasted until the mid 15th century, with court and parliament assemblies (þing) taking place at Brattahlíð and a bishop at Garðar.
Few sources describing contact between indigenous peoples and Norse people exist.
Other contact claims, typically based on circumstantial and ambiguous interpretations of archaeological finds, cultural comparisons, comments in historical documents, and narrative accounts, have been dismissed as fringe science or pseudoarcheology.
Norse journeys to Greenland and Canada are supported by historical and archaeological evidence.
The genetic link between the South American Mapuche (to whom the chickens were thought to originally belong) chicken bones and South Pacific Island species has been rejected by a more recent genetic study which concluded that "The analysis of ancient and modern specimens reveals a unique Polynesian genetic signature" and that "a previously reported connection between pre-European South America and Polynesian chickens most likely resulted from contamination with modern DNA, and that this issue is likely to confound ancient DNA studies involving haplogroup E chicken sequences." In recent years, evidence has emerged suggesting a possibility of pre-Columbian contact between the Mapuche people (Araucanians) of south-central Chile and Polynesians.
It has been requested that the title of this article be changed to Pre-Columbian American contact theories.
Please see the relevant discussion on the discussion page.
Conflict between the Greenlanders and the "skrælings" is recorded in the Icelandic Annals.
The term skrælings is also used in the Vínland sagas, which relate to events during the 10th century, when describing trade and conflict with native peoples.
Tomolo'o, the Chumash word for such a craft, may derive from kumula'au, the Hawaiian term for the logs from which shipwrights carve planks to be sewn into canoes. If it occurred, this contact left no genetic legacy in California or Hawaii.